• A mother and child walk through Kibera. Over 25 percent of Nairobi's population live in Kibera, an area that covers less than one percent of the city. Although the population of the slum is over one million, it is recognised officially as a 'squat', or illegally occupied land, which allows the government to ignore the basic needs of the inhabitants.
  • An aerial view of Kibera, one of the most densely populated places on earth. An average of 1,500 people live in an area the size of a football pitch, or the rough area of this picture.
  • Despite its bad environment and health conditions, Kibera continued to grow rapidly during the 1970s. The slum started to boom with its population increasing from estimated 6,000 inhabitants in 1965 to 62,000 in 1980, 250,000 in 1992 and 500,000 in 1998, with an estimated growth rate of 17% per year. The population in Kibera continues to grow by 5% every year.
  • A child washes at a public tap. The average person living in Kibera does not have running water or electricity. Half of the slum's inhabitants are under the age of 15 and there are an estimated 100,000 orphaned children.
  • A worshipper in the Cathedral of Praise Ministry Church in Kibera. God uses ordinary men and women with boundless enthusiasm to reach out to a world filled with desolation and despair.
  • Yet another child becomes a grim statistic in Kibera; diarrhoea, typhoid and dysentery are rampant, with infant mortality rates almost four times the average for Nairobi.
  • The Odongo Family eating breakfast in the house. Clockwise from left are Lavenda, Naomi, Meshak, Michelle, Augustin Odongo, Cynthia, Eunice and Clarissa. Homes in Kibera are made out of corrugated tin, mud, cardboard and plastic and consist of one room that serves as a kitchen, living room and bedroom. Most homes are about 3 metres by 3 metres with an average of five people living in them.
  • Augustin Odongo and Clarissa in bed with two year old Michelle between them in their tiny hut in the heart of Kibera.
  • People walk along the railway tracks running through Kibera.
  • Children collect drinking water in the schoolyard of the popular Olympic Primary School, one of the leading government schools in the country, in Kibera slum.
  • Soot, dust and other waste heavily pollute Kibera. Open sewage routes, in addition to the common use of ‘flying toilets’, also contribute to contamination of the slum with human and animal faeces.
  • The overcrowded passenger train runs once in the morning and once in the evening, carrying Kiberans to and from work in downtown Nairobi.
  • 30 year old Christine Waweru gives birth to a baby boy at the Ushirika Clinic in Kibera.
  • A young resident of Kibera. Half of the slum's inhabitants are under the age of 15 and there are an estimated 100,000 orphaned children in the slum.
  • Afternoon pedestrian traffic along the railway track that runs through Kibera.
  • A woman steps out of her home in Kibera. The ground in much of Kibera is made up of of refuse and rubbish. Houses are often constructed on top of this unstable ground and therefore many structures collapse whenever the slum experiences flooding, which it does regularly.
  • Young men and women watch an action movie in a makeshift cinema. 80 percent of youths in Kibera are unemployed, so many of their days are spent in cinemas like this.
  • The Kibera slum, bordered by an exclusive golf course.
  • Pastor William Okelu Odongo (with cross) leads the Gospel Ministry of African Holy Church on a Sunday in Kibera.
  • Kibera can be a dangerous place at night. Women and girls risk rape if they step outside their mud-brick homes after dark.
  • A mother and child walk through Kibera. Over 25 percent of Nairobi's population live in Kibera, an area that covers less than one percent of the city. Although the population of the slum is over one million, it is recognised officially as a 'squat', or illegally occupied land, which allows the government to ignore the basic needs of the inhabitants.
  • An aerial view of Kibera, one of the most densely populated places on earth. An average of 1,500 people live in an area the size of a football pitch, or the rough area of this picture.
  • Despite its bad environment and health conditions, Kibera continued to grow rapidly during the 1970s. The slum started to boom with its population increasing from estimated 6,000 inhabitants in 1965 to 62,000 in 1980, 250,000 in 1992 and 500,000 in 1998, with an estimated growth rate of 17% per year. The population in Kibera continues to grow by 5% every year.
  • A child washes at a public tap. The average person living in Kibera does not have running water or electricity. Half of the slum's inhabitants are under the age of 15 and there are an estimated 100,000 orphaned children.
  • A worshipper in the Cathedral of Praise Ministry Church in Kibera. God uses ordinary men and women with boundless enthusiasm to reach out to a world filled with desolation and despair.
  • Yet another child becomes a grim statistic in Kibera; diarrhoea, typhoid and dysentery are rampant, with infant mortality rates almost four times the average for Nairobi.
  • The Odongo Family eating breakfast in the house. Clockwise from left are Lavenda, Naomi, Meshak, Michelle, Augustin Odongo, Cynthia, Eunice and Clarissa. Homes in Kibera are made out of corrugated tin, mud, cardboard and plastic and consist of one room that serves as a kitchen, living room and bedroom. Most homes are about 3 metres by 3 metres with an average of five people living in them.
  • Augustin Odongo and Clarissa in bed with two year old Michelle between them in their tiny hut in the heart of Kibera.
  • People walk along the railway tracks running through Kibera.
  • Children collect drinking water in the schoolyard of the popular Olympic Primary School, one of the leading government schools in the country, in Kibera slum.
  • Soot, dust and other waste heavily pollute Kibera. Open sewage routes, in addition to the common use of ‘flying toilets’, also contribute to contamination of the slum with human and animal faeces.
  • The overcrowded passenger train runs once in the morning and once in the evening, carrying Kiberans to and from work in downtown Nairobi.
  • 30 year old Christine Waweru gives birth to a baby boy at the Ushirika Clinic in Kibera.
  • A young resident of Kibera. Half of the slum's inhabitants are under the age of 15 and there are an estimated 100,000 orphaned children in the slum.
  • Afternoon pedestrian traffic along the railway track that runs through Kibera.
  • A woman steps out of her home in Kibera. The ground in much of Kibera is made up of of refuse and rubbish. Houses are often constructed on top of this unstable ground and therefore many structures collapse whenever the slum experiences flooding, which it does regularly.
  • Young men and women watch an action movie in a makeshift cinema. 80 percent of youths in Kibera are unemployed, so many of their days are spent in cinemas like this.
  • The Kibera slum, bordered by an exclusive golf course.
  • Pastor William Okelu Odongo (with cross) leads the Gospel Ministry of African Holy Church on a Sunday in Kibera.
  • Kibera can be a dangerous place at night. Women and girls risk rape if they step outside their mud-brick homes after dark.

The Shadow City

2007 - 2012

The world’s population just passed the 7 billion mark, and for the first time in history, the majority of the world’s population lives in cities. In Nairobi, Kenya, one million people are crammed in to a piece of land the same size as Manhattan’s Central Park. The Kibera slum is located five kilometers southwest of Nairobi’s city centre.